A. The Nature of Claim
Claim should be sound and significant.
- What kind of claim to make
- Is it specific enough?
- Will readers think it significant enough to need an argument supporting it?
B. The Kind of Claim
- Kind of problem determines claim and argument.
- Practical and Conceptual claims
- Both require different kinds of arguments
C. Readers Expectations for Explanation
- Why is the solution feasible?
- Less cost to implement?
- No lead to bigger problems?
- Cheaper and faster than alternatives?
D. Evaluating the Claim
- Specific and Significant
- Specific Language
- Specific Logic
- Means to add statements to avoid absolute claim.
- Every claim has limiting conditions
- Words all, always, never, none, every imply absolute knowledge
- These words create distrust
- Phrases like in most case, in many cases, we believe, things appear etc should be used
- They do not contain the evidence itself.
- They represent or describe it.
G. Evaluating Evidence
- Is it sufficient?
- Is it representative?
- Is it reported accurately and precisely?
- Is it taken from authoritative sources?
H. Acknowledgements and Responses
- Argument complete only if it acknowledges and respond to other points of view.
- Question our framing of the problem
- Question our solution
- Question our support
- Imagine alternatives
- Decide what to acknowledge
Vocabulary of Acknowledgement
J. Three Predictable Disagreements
- Additional causes
- Counter examples